Thursday, February 14, 2013

Stem Cells from the Rotator Cuff and Biceps Tendon

In a landmark study, Dr. Pietro Randelli and his colleagues found a population of cells within the rotator cuff and biceps tendon with stem cell like "characteristics (ie, they were self-renewing in vitro, clonogenic, and multipotent), as they could be induced to differentiate into different cell types-namely, osteoblasts, adipocytes, and skeletal 
muscle cells."

The full implications of this paper are difficult to predict but this work could enable entirely new approaches to tendon repair within and outside of the shoulder.  The authors should be congratulated on this truly important work.  See the full abstract below for details.

Total Tendon

 2013 Feb 7. [Epub ahead of print]

Isolation and Characterization of 2 New Human Rotator Cuff and Long Head of Biceps Tendon Cells Possessing Stem Cell-Like Self-Renewal and Multipotential Differentiation Capacity.

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IRCCS Policlinico San Donato, San Donato Milanese, Italy.


BACKGROUND:Stem cell therapy is expected to offer new alternatives to the traditional therapies of rotator cuff tendon tears. In particular, resident, tissue-specific, adult stem cells seem to have a higher regenerative potential for the tissue where they reside. HYPOTHESIS:Rotator cuff tendon and long head of the biceps tendon possess a resident stem cell population that, when properly stimulated, may be induced to proliferate, thus being potentially usable for tendon regeneration. STUDY DESIGN:Controlled laboratory study. METHODS:Human tendon samples from the supraspinatus and the long head of the biceps were collected during rotator cuff tendon surgeries from 26 patients, washed with phosphate-buffered saline, cut into small pieces, and digested with collagenase type I and dispase. After centrifugation, cell pellets were resuspended in appropriate culture medium and plated. Adherent cells were cultured, phenotypically characterized, and then compared with human bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs), as an example of adult stem cells, and human dermal fibroblasts, as normal proliferating cells with no stem cell properties. RESULTS:Two new adult stem cell populations from the supraspinatus and long head of the biceps tendons were isolated, characterized, and cultured in vitro. Cells showed adult stem cell characteristics (ie, they were self-renewing in vitro, clonogenic, and multipotent), as they could be induced to differentiate into different cell types-namely, osteoblasts, adipocytes, and skeletal muscle cells. CONCLUSION:This work demonstrated that human rotator cuff tendon stem cells and human long head of the biceps tendon stem cells can be isolated and possess a high regenerative potential, which is comparable with that of BMSCs. Moreover, comparative analysis of the sphingolipid pattern of isolated cells with that of BMSCs and fibroblasts revealed the possibility of using this class of lipids as new possible markers of the cell differentiation status. CLINICAL RELEVANCE:Rotator cuff and long head of the biceps tendons contain a stem cell population that can proliferate in vitro and could constitute an easily accessible stem cell source to develop novel therapies for tendon regeneration.

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